You may not have heard of Ashoka, but for the past 27 years, this association, founded by Bill Drayton, has fought poverty (贫穷) and sickness, promoted education and encouraged small businesses．To support these worthy causes, Ashoka provides money for the world’s most promising "changemakers" seeking to solve (解决) urgent problems and would like to create a world in which every citizen is a changemaker．
Drayton believes that anyone can become an agent for change．The important thing is to simply give yourself permission．If you see a problem that you care about, you can help solve it．The young in particular are willing to accept this concept because at heart every child wants to grow into a happy, healthy, contributing adult．In fact, it is many young people’s ambition to set up programmes or businesses that improve social conditions．An excellent example is an Ashoka project started in 1995 in Dhaka, which handled the rubbish problem facing the city, helped local farmers and provided an income for poor people there．
When Masqsood and Iftekhar began to study the problem of all the uncollected rubbish that lay in Dhaka’s streets, attracting rats and disease, they discovered that 80% of it was natural waste ．So they educated the poor people in the city to compost (把……制成堆粪) this waste ．They knew that they would have a market for the end product because local farmers were struggling with chemical fertilisers (化肥) which were expensive and had reduced the natural minerals in the soil over the years．At first, they were refused, but once they were able to persuade them that there was money to be made, the project took off．In 2009 sales were $14,000．
Drayton is optimistic that in ten years Ashoka will be making really serious, practical progress in bringing about social change by changing the way we look at economic development．
1．Which of the following could be the best title for the passage?
C．Social Conditions D．Rubbish Problem
2．The underlined word "them" in Paragraph 3 probably refers to“________”
A．the local farmers B．Masqsood and Iftekhar
C．Drayton and his team D．the poor people in Dhaka
3．It can be concluded from the passage that anyone can become a changemaker if he ________．
A．considers Drayton’s concept
B．gets permission from Ashoka
C．tries to improve social conditions
D．is a young, happy and healthy adult
4．The authors attitude towards Ashoka’s program can be described as _________．
A．changing B．forgiving C．cautious D．positive
If you are a fruit grower—or would like to become one—take advantage of Apple Day to see what’s around. It’s called Apple Day but in practice it’s more like Apple Month. The day itself is on October 21, but since it has caught on, events now spread out over most of October around Britain.
Visiting an apple event is a good chance to see, and often taste, a wide variety of apples. To people who are used to the limited choice of apples such as Golden Delicious and Royal Gala in supermarkets, it can be quite an eye opener to see the range of classical apples still in existence, such as Decio which was grown by the Romans. Although it doesn’t taste of anything special, it’s still worth a try, as is the knobbly (多疙瘩的) Cat’s Head which is more of a curiosity than anything else.
There are also varieties developed to suit specific local conditions. One of the very best varieties for eating quality is Orleans Reinette, but you’ll need a warm, sheltered place with perfect soil to grow it, so it’s a pipe dream for most apple lovers who fall for it.
At the events, you can meet expert growers and discuss which ones will best suit your conditions, and because these are family affairs, children are well catered for with apple-themed fun and games.
Apple Days are being held at all sorts of places with an interest in fruit, including stately gardens and commercial orchards(果园). If you want to have a real orchard experience, try visiting the National Fruit Collection at Brogdale, near Faversham in Kent.
8.What can people do at the apple events?
A. Attend experts’ lectures.
B. Visit fruit-loving families.
C. Plant fruit trees in an orchard.
D. Taste many kinds of apples.
9.What can we learn about Decio?
A. It is a new variety.
B. It has a strange look.
C. It is rarely seen now.
D. It has a special taste.
10. What does the underlined phrase “a pipe dream” in Paragraph 3mean?
A. A practical idea.
B. A vain hope.
C.A brilliant plan.
D. A selfish desire.
11.What is the author’s purpose in writing the text?
A. To show how to grow apples.
B .To introduce an apple festival.
C. To help people select apples.
D. To promote apple research.
Enough “meaningless drivel”. That’s the message from a group of members of the UK government who have been examining how social media firms like LinkedIn gather and use social media data.
The House of Commons Science and Technology Committee’s report, released last week, has blamed firms for making people sign up to long incomprehensible legal contracts and calls for an international standard or kitemark (认证标记) to identify sites that have clear terms and conditions.
“The term and conditions statement that we all carelessly agree to is meaningless drivel to anyone,” says Andrew Miller, the chair of the committee. Instead, he says, firms should provide a plain-English version of their terms. The simplified version would be checked by a third party and awarded a kitemark if it is an accurate reflection of the original.
It is not yet clear who would administer the scheme, but the UK government is looking at introducing it on a voluntary basis. “We need to think through how we make that work in practice,” says Miller.
Would we pay any more attention to a kitemark? “I think if you went and did the survey, people would like to think they would,” says Nigel Shadbolt at the University of Southampton, UK, who studies open data. “We do know people worry a lot about the inappropriate use of their information. But what would happen in practice is another matter, ”he says.
Other organisations such as banks ask customers to sign long contracts they may not read or understand, but Miller believes social media requires special attention because it is so new. “We still don’t know how significant the long-term impact is going to be of unwise things that kids put on social media that come back and bite them in 20 years’ time,” he says.
Shadbolt, who gave evidence to the committee, says the problem is that we don’t know how companies will use our data because their business models and uses of data are still evolving. Large collections of personal information have become valuable only recently, he says.
The shock and anger when a social media firm does something with data that people don’t expect, even if users have apparently permission, show that the current situation isn’t working. If properly administered, a kitemark on terms and conditions could help people know what exactly they are signing up to. Although they would still have to actually read them.
73．What does the phrase “meaningless drivel” in paragraphs 1 and 3 refer to?
A．Legal contracts that social media firms make people sign up to.
B．Warnings from the UK government against unsafe websites.
C．Guidelines on how to use social media websites properly.
D．Insignificant data collected by social media firms.
74．It can be inferred from the passage that Nigel Shadbolt doubts whether _______.
A．social media firms would conduct a survey on the kitemark scheme
B．people would pay as much attention to a kitemark as they think
C．a kitemark scheme would be workable on a nationwide scale
D．the kitemark would help companies develop their business models
75．Andrew Miller thinks social media needs more attention than banks mainly because _______.
A．their users consist largely of kids under 20 years old
B．the language in their contracts is usually harder to understand
C．the information they collected could become more valuable in future
D．it remains unknown how users’ data will be taken advantage of
76．The writer advises users of social media to _______.
A．think carefully before posting anything onto such websites
B．read the terms and conditions even if there is a kitemark
C．take no further action if they can find a kitemark
D．avoid providing too much personal information
77．Which of the following is the best title of the passage?
A．Say no to social media?
B．New security rules in operation!
C．Accept without reading?