You may not have heard of Ashoka, but for the past 27 years, this association, founded by Bill Drayton, has fought poverty (贫穷) and sickness, promoted education and encouraged small businesses．To support these worthy causes, Ashoka provides money for the world’s most promising "changemakers" seeking to solve (解决) urgent problems and would like to create a world in which every citizen is a changemaker．
Drayton believes that anyone can become an agent for change．The important thing is to simply give yourself permission．If you see a problem that you care about, you can help solve it．The young in particular are willing to accept this concept because at heart every child wants to grow into a happy, healthy, contributing adult．In fact, it is many young people’s ambition to set up programmes or businesses that improve social conditions．An excellent example is an Ashoka project started in 1995 in Dhaka, which handled the rubbish problem facing the city, helped local farmers and provided an income for poor people there．
When Masqsood and Iftekhar began to study the problem of all the uncollected rubbish that lay in Dhaka’s streets, attracting rats and disease, they discovered that 80% of it was natural waste ．So they educated the poor people in the city to compost (把……制成堆粪) this waste ．They knew that they would have a market for the end product because local farmers were struggling with chemical fertilisers (化肥) which were expensive and had reduced the natural minerals in the soil over the years．At first, they were refused, but once they were able to persuade them that there was money to be made, the project took off．In 2009 sales were $14,000．
Drayton is optimistic that in ten years Ashoka will be making really serious, practical progress in bringing about social change by changing the way we look at economic development．
1．Which of the following could be the best title for the passage?
C．Social Conditions D．Rubbish Problem
2．The underlined word "them" in Paragraph 3 probably refers to“________”
A．the local farmers B．Masqsood and Iftekhar
C．Drayton and his team D．the poor people in Dhaka
3．It can be concluded from the passage that anyone can become a changemaker if he ________．
A．considers Drayton’s concept
B．gets permission from Ashoka
C．tries to improve social conditions
D．is a young, happy and healthy adult
4．The authors attitude towards Ashoka’s program can be described as _________．
A．changing B．forgiving C．cautious D．positive
The values of artistic works, according to cultural relativism (相对主义), are simply reflections of local social and economic conditions．Such a view, however, fails to explain the ability of some works of art to excite the human mind across cultures and through centuries．
History has witnessed the endless productions of Shakespearean plays in every major language of the world．It is never rare to find that Mozart packs Japanese concert halls, as Japanese painter Hiroshige does Paris galleries．Unique works of this kind are different from today’s popular art, even if they began as works of popular art．They have set themselves apart in their timeless appeal and will probably be enjoyed for centuries into the future．
In a 1757 essay, the philosopher David Hume argued that because “the general principles of taste are uniform (不变的) in human nature”, the value of some works of art might be essentially permanent．He observed that Homer was still admired after two thousand years．Works of this type, he believed, spoke to deep and unvarying features of human nature and could continue to exist over centuries．
Now researchers are applying scientific methods to the study of the universality of art．For example, evolutionary psychology is being used by literary scholars to explain the long-lasting themes and plot devices in fiction．The structures of musical pieces are now open to experimental analysis as never before．Research findings seem to indicate that the creation by a great artist is as permanent an achievement as the discovery by a great scientist．
52．According to the passage, what do we know about cultural relativism?
A．It introduces different cultural values．
B．It explains the history of artistic works．
C．It relates artistic values to local conditions．
D．It excites the human mind throughout the world．
53．In Paragraph 2, the artists are mentioned in order to show that _______．
A．great works of art can go beyond national boundaries
B．history gives art works special appeal to set them apart
C．popular arts are hardly distinguishable from great arts
D．great artists are skilled at combining various cultures
54．According to Hume, some works of art can exist for centuries because _______．
A．they are results of scientific study
B．they establish some general principles of art
C．they are created by the world’s greatest artists
D．they appeal to unchanging features of human nature
55．Which of the following can best serve as the title of the passage?
A．Are Artistic Values Universal?
B．Are Popular Arts Permanent?
C．Is Human Nature Uniform?
D．Is Cultural Relativism Scientific?